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  according to ahead of apart from by means of but for because of due to except for for the sake of in addition to instead of in front of

  in spite of in the name of on behalf of prior to with regard to owing to由于


  concerning including past regarding


  3.1 表示时间的介词at, on, in, after, for, since, by, till, until, during



  at 4:30 (noon, dawn, midnight……) on Sunday (Oct.1……)

  on Saturday afternoon (an autumn evening……) ***in the afternoon on Sunday

  at Christmas in (during) 1987 (December, the 19th century……)

  during my military service (the trip) The job was done in a week.

  ②He will be back in two hours. He will be back after two o"clock.

  ③I stayed in London (for) two days on my way to New York. since 1950 (then)

  ④By noon, everybody had (will have) arrived there. 到中午的时候,大家都(将)到那儿了。

  from 1985 to 1996

  ⑤He waited till(until)5 o"clock. They stayed until (till) after the meeting. (肯定句中表示:直到…时候)

  Until now I knew nothing about it. Jack didn"t come home until / till about 11. (否定句中表示:直到…才)

  3.2表示地点、位置的介词in, at, round, around, beyond, on, beneath, over, under, above, below, up, down, before, behind, between, among, amid(st)

  ①The car pulled up at the gate.车停在大门口 She lives at No. 52 Hazel Avenue.

  They have arrived in Peking. What is in the box?

  ②He put a necklace (a)round her neck. He is making a trip round the world.

  ③beyond表示在…以外: There is a village beyond the hill.


  There is a book on the desk. The submarine can run very fast beneath the sea.

  ⑤over:在(垂直)上方; under:在(垂直)下方:

  There is a lamp over the table. The peasants are having a rest under the tree.

  ⑥above:在…上方; below:在…下方:

  The plane is flying above the clouds. The sun sank below the horizon.

  ⑦before:在…前面;after:在…后面 (两者具有动态意义)

  Don"t put the cart before the horse.莫本末倒置。 The object should be placed after the verb.

  ***in front of和behind表示静态意义的位置。

  The car was parked in front of the building. There is a garden behind the house.

  ⑧between:在(两者)之间:Is there any difference between the two words?

  among:在(两者以上)之间:They visited the temple among the hills.


  The soldiers charged forward amid(st) the enemy bullets.

  3.3表示方向、方位的介词to,in,for, at

  ① in在…面(包含在其中): Shanghai lies in the east of China.

  to在…部(不包含在其中): Japan lies to the east of China.

  on 两地接壤: Vietnam lies on the south of China.

  ②leave, start, depart等词后加for,表示目的地:He will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.

  3.4表示空间运动的介词along, across, through, over, up, down, from, to, into, out of

  ①along沿着: They are taking a walk along the street.

  across横过: Dare you swim across the river?

  ②through(从中间穿过): They drove through the city (tunnel)

  over越过: The plane flew over the city.

  ③up向上方: He ran up the stairs. down向下方: The ship is sailing down the river.

  ④He received a letter from abroad. She stood up and walked to the window.

  3.5表示工具、方法和手段的介词with, by, in, through, on


  Wood is often cut with a saw. We should face the situation with great courage.


  Babies learn to speak by imitation. We can get energy by burning fuel.

  3) in表示方式: Can you do the experiment in another way? Cloth is often measured in metres.

  4) through表示途径,手段,与by接近: He became rich through hard work.

  3.6表示原因的介词because of, owing to, due to(一般不位于句首), on account of, at, for, from, with, of

  eg. The flight was cancelled due to the fog. We rejoiced at their great achievements.

  He was punished for stealing. They are suffering from starvation and disease.

  She was red with shame. The man died of lung cancer.直接原因 The soldier died from a bad wound.间接原因

  3.7除了…:besides, except, except for, but, apart from(意思较广)

  Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry.

  He answered all the questions except (but) the last one.

  Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.整体中除去一个细节

  The enemy had no choice but to surrender.

  ***but for表示:要不是因为,倘若没有,常用于虚拟语气表示含蓄条件。

  3.8表示让步的介词in spite of, despite, after all, for all, with all

  The children continued to play in the garden despite the rain.

  With all his achievements, he remains modest and prudent.谦虚谨慎 For all his faults, we still like him.


  5.1系表结构,应用形容词作表语:The dish smells good. He looks very serious. She felt bad at the news.


  clean direct firm likely quick close early hard long slow clear enough high

  low straight dead far kindly much tight deep fast late near wrong wide

  John drives very fast. He took a fast train to London.

  You must go straight to bed. The teacher drew a straight line.


  daily每天的 lonely孤独的 lovely可爱的 lively活泼的 monthly每月一次的 friendly友好的

  kindly和蔼的 early早的 silly愚蠢的 timely及时的 likely很可能的 ugly丑陋的

  deadly致命的 deathly死一般的 earthly世俗的 其中early, kindly, likely也可用作副词。


  bad 坏的 badly 非常 practical实际的 practically事实上 hard坚硬 hardly 几乎不

  large 大的 largely主要地 late迟的,晚的 lately近来 like像 likely 很可能

  scarce 稀少的 scarcely 几乎不 short 短的 shortly 不久,很快 bare 光秃的 barely仅仅


  ****This is a tough task. 作定语 This task is tough.作表语


  asleep睡着的 afraid 害怕的 aware意识到的 awake醒的 alike相似的 alone单独的 alive活着的

  ashamed羞愧的 content满意的 glad高兴的 unable不能的 well健康的 fond喜欢的 sorry抱歉的


  作表语 作定语

  ill 生病的 邪恶的

  hard 严厉的 努力的

  certain 有把握的 某(一)个

  little 少的 小的

  present 出席的 当前的



  eg. our great, socialist mother 我们伟大的社会主义祖国

  that hungry, tired, sleepy, little match girl那个饥饿的、疲倦的、瞌睡的、卖火柴的小女孩

  2.2同类形容词排列,较短的放在前面: a kind, generous, old man一个和蔼、慷慨的老人

  2.3同类的形容词之间也可用and连接:That is a black and white cat. He was tall, dark and handsome.


  1) sleepy 瞌睡的 2) healthy 健康的 3) industrial 工业的

  asleep 睡着的 healthful有益于健康的 industrious勤奋的

  4) historic 有历史意义的 5) continual 频繁的 6) economic经济(上)的

  historical 历史的 continuous 连续不断的 economical节省的

  7) distinct 清晰的 8) respectable 值得尊敬的 9) everyday日常的

  distinctive 有特色的 respectful 有礼貌的 every day每天(作状语)

  10) all ready都准备好的 11) popular流行的 12) considerable相当的

  already (副词)已经 populous人口稠密的 considerate考虑周到的

  13) disinterested无私的 14) honorary名誉上的 15) practical实用的

  uninterested不感兴趣的 honorable可尊敬的 practicable可行的

  16) defective有缺点的 17) alone独自的 18) successful成功的

  deficient缺乏的 lonely孤独的 successive连续的

  19) principal主要的 20) pleasant令人愉快的 21) desirable中意的

  principle原则n. pleased高兴的 desirous渴望的

  22) imminent紧迫的 23) live活的(作定语) 24) like相象的

  eminent的 lively活泼的 alike相象的(作表语)

  alive活的(作表语) likely可能的

  25) dead死的 26) sensitive敏感的 27) efficient效率高的

  deadly致命的 sensible明智的 proficient熟练的

  deathly死一般的 sensory知觉的 sufficient足够的

  28) imaginable可以想象的 29) invaluable无价的 30) eligible合格的 31) stationary静止的

  imaginary想象中的 valueless无价值的 illegible字迹不清的 stationery文具

  imaginative有想象力的 priceless无价的 illegal非法的



  high高高地 highly高度地 direct径直地 directly立刻 late晚,迟 lately 最近

  pretty相当地 prettily优美地 sharp突然 sharply严厉地 short突然 shortly马上

  most最 mostly大部分 near近 nearly几乎 just正好 justly公正地

  hard努力地 hardly几乎不 free免费地 freely自由地

  1.2副词在句中的位置 quickly enough do everything carefully


  ①Frankly, the students didn"t work hard enough last term. 表态度

  ②The clock is old; it is, however, in good condition. 表逻辑关系

  ③The rain didn"t last long, as they had expected. 表解释

  ④That accident, John recalled, occurred on a summer morning. 表主次关系


  1.1肯定式原级比较:……像……那样: as + 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词(主格)

  Some of the stars may be as large as the sun and as hot as the sun.

  1.2否定式原级比较:……不如……那样:not so或as+ 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词(主格)

  The melting point of copper is not so (或as) high as that of iron.


  He is not so (much) unintelligent as uneducated.与其说他不聪明,不如说他未受过教育。

  1.4 more (less)……than结构有时表示:与其说……不如说……,用法同上。

  He is more diligent than clever. 与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋。

  She was less hurt than frightened. 与其说她受伤了,不如说被吓着了。

  He is much more an actor than a musician. 与其说他是音乐家,不如说是演员。


  原级 比较级 级 原级 比较级 级

  good/well better best many/much more most

  little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest

  bad/badly/ill worse worst old elder/older eldest/oldest

  late later/latter latest/last near nearer nearest/nest



  much, many, far, by far, still, even, a lot,a little, a great deal,three years, one-third,20%等。

  eg. Air in the country is much (far…) cleaner than that in the city.

  He is three years older than his sister. This month, they will produce 20% more coal than last month.

  many / far more opportunities可数 much / far more money不可数


  This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间的大小是那个房间的三倍。

  Our trade union movement would be a thousand times stronger if it were better organized.

  如果组织得好一些, 我们的工会运动将会(比现在)强一千倍。

  2.4 "the + more……, the + more……"表示:"越……,越……"

  The earlier you start, the sooner you will be back.

  The more books one reads, the more knowledgeable he becomes.

  2.5 有时比较级也用"the +比较级 + of +比较范围(通常两者)"结构:

  He is the cleverer of the two boys. Of Mary and Jane, who is the smarter?

  2.6 not more than和 no more than的区别

  not more than:不超过,不及; no more than:转义为只不过,仅仅。= only

  There are not more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校的学生不超过五百。

  There are no more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校里的学生只有五百。

  类似的还有:not less than不少于 no less than 有……之多

  not better than 不比……好 no better than 一样的不好


  absolute绝对的 sole的 eternal永恒的 total总的 first第一的 ultimate最终的

  true真实的 unique独特的 wrong错误的 final 最终的 correct正确的 last最后的

  only仅有的 perfect 完美的 primary首要的 unanimous一致的


  inferior劣等的 junior年幼的 superior优越的 senior年长的




  appear be become come fall feel get go grow keep

  lie remain rest run smell sound stand stay taste look



  Do you read newspaper every day? The job will be finished soon.




  catch come die find give join kill lose leave marry realize


  ①动态动词:live, sit, stand, study, talk, work, write等

  ②状态动词:be, belong, consist, exist, feel, hate, have, hope, love, want等


  ask bring buy choose do deny fetch get give grant hand leave lend

  make offer order pay pass promise sell send show take teach tell write


  1、动词 + 介词:

  listen to听 amount to等于 long for渴望 call on号召 operate on 为……动手术

  consist of 由……组成 resist in坚持 account for解释 look at 看 care for 照顾

  object to反对 send for 派人去请 rely on 依靠 depend on 依靠 stand for代表

  laugh at 嘲笑 wait for等待 look into调查 apply for申请 believe in 信仰

  play with玩 come across碰见 go through通过